<head> Cheat Sheet


A list of everything that could go in the <head> of your document

Table of Contents

Below are the essential tags for basic, minimalist websites:

<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta http-equiv="x-ua-compatible" content="ie=edge">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no">
<!-- The above 3 meta tags *must* come first in the head; any other head content must come *after* these tags -->
<title>Page Title</title>


<!-- Document Title -->
<title>Page Title</title>

<!-- Base URL to use for all relative URLs contained within the document -->
<base href="https://example.com/page.html">

<!-- External CSS -->
<link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">

<!-- In-document CSS -->
  /* ... */

<!-- JavaScript -->
<script src="script.js"></script>
<noscript><!--no JS alternative--></noscript>


<meta charset="utf-8"> <!-- set character encoding for the document -->
<meta http-equiv="x-ua-compatible" content="ie=edge">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no">
<!-- The above 3 meta tags *must* come first in the head; any other head content must come *after* these tags -->

<!-- Allows control over where resources are loaded from -->
<meta http-equiv="Content-Security-Policy" content="default-src 'self'">
<!-- Place as early in the document as possible -->
<!-- Only applies to content below this tag -->

<!-- Name of web application (only should be used if the website is used as an app) -->
<meta name="application-name" content="Application Name">

<!-- Short description of the page (limit to 150 characters) -->
<!-- In *some* situations this description is used as a part of the snippet shown in the search results. -->
<meta name="description" content="A description of the page">

<!-- Control the behavior of search engine crawling and indexing -->
<meta name="robots" content="index,follow,noodp"><!-- All Search Engines -->
<meta name="googlebot" content="index,follow"><!-- Google Specific -->

<!-- Tells Google not to show the sitelinks search box -->
<meta name="google" content="nositelinkssearchbox">

<!-- Tells Google not to provide a translation for this page -->
<meta name="google" content="notranslate">

<!-- Verify ownership for Google Search Console -->
<meta name="google-site-verification" content="verification_token">

<!-- Used to name software used to build the website (i.e. - WordPress, Dreamweaver) -->
<meta name="generator" content="program">

<!-- Short description of your site's subject -->
<meta name="subject" content="your website's subject">

<!-- Gives a general age rating based on sites content -->
<meta name="rating" content="General">

<!-- Allows control over how referrer information is passed -->
<meta name="referrer" content="no-referrer">

<!-- Disable automatic detection and formatting of possible phone numbers -->
<meta name="format-detection" content="telephone=no">

<!-- Completely opt out of DNS prefetching by setting to 'off' -->
<meta http-equiv="x-dns-prefetch-control" content="off">

<!-- Stores cookie on the client web browser for client identification -->
<meta http-equiv="set-cookie" content="name=value; expires=date; path=url">

<!-- Specifies the page to appear in a specific frame -->
<meta http-equiv="Window-Target" content="_value">

<!-- Geo tags -->
<meta name="ICBM" content="latitude, longitude">
<meta name="geo.position" content="latitude;longitude">
<meta name="geo.region" content="country[-state]"><!-- Country code (ISO 3166-1): mandatory, state code (ISO 3166-2): optional; eg. content="US" / content="US-NY" -->
<meta name="geo.placename" content="city/town"><!-- eg. content="New York City" -->

Below are the meta attributes which are not recommended for use as they had low adoption rate, or have been deprecated:

<!-- Google disregards & Bing considers it an indicator of spam -->
<meta name="keywords" content="your,keywords,here,comma,separated,no,spaces">
<!-- No evidence of current use in any search engines -->
<meta name="revised" content="Sunday, July 18th, 2010, 5:15 pm">

<!-- Provides an easy way for spam bots to harvest email addresses -->
<meta name="reply-to" content="email@example.com">

<!-- Better to use <link rel="author"> or humans.txt file -->
<meta name="author" content="name, email@example.com">
<meta name="designer" content="">
<meta name="owner" content="">

<!-- Tells search bots to revisit the page after a period. This is not supported because most Search Engines now use random intervals for re-crawling a webpage -->
<meta name="revisit-after" content="7 days">

<!-- Sends user to a new URL after a certain amount of time -->
<!-- The W3C recommends that this tag not be used. Google recommends using a server-side 301 redirect instead. -->
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="300; url=https://example.com/">

<!-- Describes the topic of the website -->
<meta name="topic" content="">

<!-- Brief summary of the company or purpose of the website -->
<meta name="summary" content="">

<!-- A deprecated tag that does the same as the keywords meta tag -->
<meta name="classification" content="business">

<!-- Does the same as URL, older and not supported -->
<meta name="identifier-URL" content="https://example.com/">

<!-- Similar function to the keywords tag -->
<meta name="category" content="">

<!-- Makes sure your website shows up in all countries and languages -->
<meta name="coverage" content="Worldwide">

<!-- Does the same as the coverage tag -->
<meta name="distribution" content="Global">

<!-- Controls what user can access on the internet -->
<meta http-equiv="Pics-label" content="value">

<!-- Cache Control -->
<!-- Better to configure cache control server side -->
<meta http-equiv="Expires" content="0">
<meta http-equiv="Pragma" content="no-cache">
<meta http-equiv="Cache-Control" content="no-cache">
<!-- Points to a CSS stylesheet -->
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://example.com/styles.css">

<!-- Helps prevent duplicate content issues -->
<link rel="canonical" href="https://example.com/2010/06/9-things-to-do-before-entering-social-media.html">

<!-- Used to be included before the icon link, but is deprecated and no longer is used -->
<link rel="shortlink" href="https://example.com/?p=42">

<!-- Links to an AMP HTML version of the current document -->
<link rel="amphtml" href="https://example.com/path/to/amp-version.html">

<!-- Links to a JSON file that specifies "installation" credentials for web applications -->
<link rel="manifest" href="manifest.json">

<!-- Links to the author of the document -->
<link rel="author" href="humans.txt">

<!-- Refers to a copyright statement that applies to the links context -->
<link rel="copyright" href="copyright.html">

<!-- Gives a reference to a location in your document that may be in another language -->
<link rel="alternate" href="https://es.example.com/" hreflang="es">

<!-- Gives information about an author or another person -->
<link rel="me" href="https://google.com/profiles/thenextweb" type="text/html">
<link rel="me" href="mailto:name@example.com">
<link rel="me" href="sms:+15035550125">

<!-- Links to a document that describes a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical interest. -->
<link rel="archives" href="https://example.com/archives/">

<!-- Links to top level resource in an hierarchical structure -->
<link rel="index" href="https://example.com/">

<!-- Gives a self reference - useful when the document has multiple possible references -->
<link rel="self" type="application/atom+xml" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php?page=3">

<!-- The first, next, previous, and last documents in a series of documents, respectively -->
<link rel="first" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php">
<link rel="next" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php?page=4">
<link rel="prev" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php?page=2">
<link rel="last" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php?page=147">

<!-- Used when using a 3rd party service to maintain a blog -->
<link rel="EditURI" href="https://example.com/xmlrpc.php?rsd" type="application/rsd+xml" title="RSD">

<!-- Forms an automated comment when another WordPress blog links to your WordPress blog or post -->
<link rel="pingback" href="https://example.com/xmlrpc.php">

<!-- Notifies a url when you link to it on your site -->
<link rel="webmention" href="https://example.com/webmention">

<!-- Loads in an external HTML file into the current HTML file -->
<link rel="import" href="/path/to/component.html">

<!-- Open Search -->
<link rel="search" href="/open-search.xml" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" title="Search Title">

<!-- Feeds -->
<link rel="alternate" href="https://feeds.feedburner.com/example" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS">
<link rel="alternate" href="https://example.com/feed.atom" type="application/atom+xml" title="Atom 0.3">

<!-- Prefetching, preloading, prebrowsing -->
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="//example.com/">
<link rel="preconnect" href="https://www.example.com/">
<link rel="prefetch" href="https://www.example.com/">
<link rel="prerender" href="https://example.com/">
<link rel="preload" href="image.png" as="image">
<!-- More info: https://css-tricks.com/prefetching-preloading-prebrowsing/ -->


<!-- For IE 10 and below -->
<!-- Place favicon.ico in the root directory - no tag necessary -->

<!-- For IE 11, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera -->
<link rel="icon" type="image/png" sizes="16x16" href="/path/to/favicon-16x16.png">
<link rel="icon" type="image/png" sizes="32x32" href="/path/to/favicon-32x32.png">
<link rel="icon" type="image/png" sizes="96x96" href="/path/to/favicon-96x96.png">


Facebook Open Graph

<meta property="fb:app_id" content="123456789">
<meta property="og:url" content="https://example.com/page.html">
<meta property="og:type" content="website">
<meta property="og:title" content="Content Title">
<meta property="og:image" content="https://example.com/image.jpg">
<meta property="og:description" content="Description Here">
<meta property="og:site_name" content="Site Name">
<meta property="og:locale" content="en_US">
<meta property="article:author" content="">
<!-- Facebook: https://developers.facebook.com/docs/sharing/webmasters#markup -->
<!-- Open Graph: http://ogp.me/ -->

Facebook Instant Articles

<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta property="op:markup_version" content="v1.0">

<!-- The URL of the web version of your article -->
<link rel="canonical" href="http://example.com/article.html">

<!-- The style to be used for this article -->
<meta property="fb:article_style" content="myarticlestyle">

Twitter Cards

<meta name="twitter:card" content="summary">
<meta name="twitter:site" content="@site_account">
<meta name="twitter:creator" content="@individual_account">
<meta name="twitter:url" content="https://example.com/page.html">
<meta name="twitter:title" content="Content Title">
<meta name="twitter:description" content="Content description less than 200 characters">
<meta name="twitter:image" content="https://example.com/image.jpg">
<!-- More info: https://dev.twitter.com/cards/getting-started -->
<!-- Validate: https://dev.twitter.com/docs/cards/validation/validator -->

Google+ / Schema.org

<link href="https://plus.google.com/+YourPage" rel="publisher">
<meta itemprop="name" content="Content Title">
<meta itemprop="description" content="Content description less than 200 characters">
<meta itemprop="image" content="https://example.com/image.jpg">


Pinterest lets you prevent people from saving things from your website, according to their help center. The description is optional.

<meta name="pinterest" content="nopin" description="Sorry, you can't save from my website!">


<link rel="alternate" type="application/json+oembed"
  title="oEmbed Profile: JSON">
<link rel="alternate" type="text/xml+oembed"
  title="oEmbed Profile: XML">

Browsers / Platforms

Apple iOS

<!-- Smart App Banner -->
<meta name="apple-itunes-app" content="app-id=APP_ID,affiliate-data=AFFILIATE_ID,app-argument=SOME_TEXT">

<!-- Disable automatic detection and formatting of possible phone numbers -->
<meta name="format-detection" content="telephone=no">

<!-- Add to Home Screen -->
<meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-capable" content="yes">
<meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-status-bar-style" content="black">
<meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-title" content="App Title">

<!-- Touch Icons -->
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="/path/to/apple-touch-icon.png">
<link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" href="/path/to/apple-touch-icon-precomposed.png">
<!-- iOS 8+ no longer support precomposed, only apple-touch-icon is required -->

<!-- In most cases, one 180×180px touch icon in the head is enough -->
<!-- Utilize the different icon sizes if you would want unique icons -->
<!-- determined by device. -->
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" sizes="57x57" href="/path/to/icon@57.png">
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" sizes="72x72" href="/path/to/icon@72.png">
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" sizes="114x114" href="/path/to/icon@114.png">
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" sizes="144x144" href="/path/to/icon@144.png">

<!-- Startup Image ( Deprecated ) -->
<link rel="apple-touch-startup-image" href="/path/to/startup.png">

<!-- iOS app deep linking -->
<meta name="apple-itunes-app" content="app-id=APP-ID, app-argument=http/url-sample.com">
<link rel="alternate" href="ios-app://APP-ID/http/url-sample.com">

Apple Safari

<!-- Pinned Site -->
<link rel="mask-icon" href="/path/to/icon.svg" color="red">

Google Android

<meta name="theme-color" content="#E64545">

<!-- Add to home screen -->
<meta name="mobile-web-app-capable" content="yes">
<!-- More info: https://developer.chrome.com/multidevice/android/installtohomescreen -->

<!-- Android app deep linking -->
<meta name="google-play-app" content="app-id=package-name">
<link rel="alternate" href="android-app://package-name/http/url-sample.com">

Google Chrome

<link rel="chrome-webstore-item" href="https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/APP_ID">

<!-- Disable translation prompt -->
<meta name="google" value="notranslate">

Google Chrome Mobile (Android Only)

Since Chrome 31, you can set up your web app to “app mode” like Safari.

<!-- Link to a manifest and define the manifest metadata. -->
<!-- The example of manifest.json could be found in the link below. -->
<link rel="manifest" href="manifest.json">

<!-- Define your web page as a web app -->
<meta name="mobile-web-app-capable" content="yes">

<!-- Homescreen Icon  -->
<link rel="icon" sizes="192x192" href="highres-icon.png">

Microsoft Internet Explorer

<meta http-equiv="x-ua-compatible" content="ie=edge">
<meta name="skype_toolbar" content="skype_toolbar_parser_compatible">

<!-- IE10: Disable link highlighting upon tap (https://blogs.windows.com/buildingapps/2012/11/15/adapting-your-webkit-optimized-site-for-internet-explorer-10/) -->
<meta name="msapplication-tap-highlight" content="no">

<!-- Pinned sites (https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn255024(v=vs.85).aspx) -->
<meta name="application-name" content="Sample Title">
<meta name="msapplication-tooltip" content="A description of what this site does.">
<meta name="msapplication-starturl" content="http://example.com/index.html?pinned=true">
<meta name="msapplication-navbutton-color" content="#FF3300">
<meta name="msapplication-window" content="width=800;height=600">
<meta name="msapplication-task" content="name=Task 1;action-uri=http://host/Page1.html;icon-uri=http://host/icon1.ico">
<meta name="msapplication-task" content="name=Task 2;action-uri=http://microsoft.com/Page2.html;icon-uri=http://host/icon2.ico">
<meta name="msapplication-badge" value="frequency=NUMBER_IN_MINUTES;polling-uri=http://example.com/path/to/file.xml">
<meta name="msapplication-TileColor" content="#FF3300">
<meta name="msapplication-TileImage" content="/path/to/tileimage.jpg">

<meta name="msapplication-config" content="http://example.com/browserconfig.xml">
<meta name="msapplication-notification" content="frequency=60;polling-uri=http://example.com/livetile;polling-uri2=http://example.com/livetile2">
<meta name="msapplication-task-separator" content="1">
<!-- iOS -->
<meta property="al:ios:url" content="applinks://docs">
<meta property="al:ios:app_store_id" content="12345">
<meta property="al:ios:app_name" content="App Links">
<!-- Android -->
<meta property="al:android:url" content="applinks://docs">
<meta property="al:android:app_name" content="App Links">
<meta property="al:android:package" content="org.applinks">
<!-- Web Fallback -->
<meta property="al:web:url" content="http://applinks.org/documentation">
<!-- More info: http://applinks.org/documentation/ -->

Browsers (Chinese)

360 Browser

<!-- select rendering engine in order -->
<meta name="renderer" content="webkit|ie-comp|ie-stand">

QQ Mobile Browser

<!-- Locks the screen into the specified orientation -->
<meta name="x5-orientation" content="landscape/portrait">
<!-- Display this page in fullscreen -->
<meta name="x5-fullscreen" content="true">
<!-- Page will be displayed in "application mode"(fullscreen,etc.) -->
<meta name="x5-page-mode" content="app">

UC Mobile Browser

<!-- Locks the screen into the specified orientation -->
<meta name="screen-orientation" content="landscape/portrait">
<!-- Display this page in fullscreen -->
<meta name="full-screen" content="yes">
<!-- UC browser will display images even if in "text mode" -->
<meta name="imagemode" content="force">
<!-- Page will be displayed in "application mode"(fullscreen,forbiding gesture, etc.) -->
<meta name="browsermode" content="application">
<!-- Disabled the UC browser's "night mode" in this page -->
<meta name="nightmode" content="disable">
<!-- Simplify the page to reduce data transfer -->
<meta name="layoutmode" content="fitscreen">
<!-- Disable the UC browser's feature of "scaling font up when there are many words in this page" -->
<meta name="wap-font-scale" content="no">



Moving the href attribute to the beginning of an element improves compression when GZIP is enabled, because the href attribute is used in a, base and link tags.


<link href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Open+Sans:400,700" rel="stylesheet">

Other Resources

Other Formats



Open an issue or a pull request to suggest changes or additions.

Please follow these steps for pull requests:


Check out all the super awesome contributors.


Josh Buchea



To the extent possible under law, Josh Buchea has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work.